In response to the marked increase in research activity and publications in multifunctional materials and structures in the last few years, this article is an attempt to identify the topics that are most relevant to multifunctional composite materials and structures and review representative journal publications that are related to those topics. Articles covering developments in both multiple structural functions and integrated structural and non-structural functions since 2000 are emphasized. Many of these recent developments are associated with polymeric smart materials and structures pdf materials and corresponding advances in nanomaterials and nanostructures, as are many of the articles reviewed. The article concludes with a discussion of recent applications of multifunctional materials and structures, such as morphing aircraft wings, structurally integrated electronic components, biomedical nanoparticles for dispensing drugs and diagnostics, and optically transparent impact absorbing structures.
Several suggestions regarding future research needs are also presented. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Through evolution, nature has arrived at what is optimal. Inspired by the biomaterials with special wettability, superhydrophobic materials have been well-investigated and -covered by several excellent reviews. The construction of superoleophobicity is more difficult than that of superhydrophobicity because the surface tension of oil or other organic liquids is lower than that of water. However, superoleophobic surfaces have drawn a great deal of attention for both fundamental research and practical applications in a variety of fields.
Although the research of bio-inspired superoleophobicity is in its infancy, it is a rapidly growing and enormously promising field. The remaining challenges and future outlook of this field are also addressed. Multifunctional integration is a inherent characteristic for biological materials. Learning from nature has long been a source of bio-inspiration for scientists and engineers. Therefore, further cross-disciplinary cooperation is essential for the construction of multifunctional advanced superoleophobic surfaces through learning the optimized biological solutions from nature. We hope this review will provide some inspirations to the researchers in the field of material science, chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering.
3D measurement of Self-Healing material from Tosoh Corporation measured by Digital Holographic Microscopy. The surface has been scratched by a metallic tool. In general, cracks are hard to detect at an early stage, and manual intervention is required for periodic inspections and repairs. In contrast, self-healing materials counter degradation through the initiation of a repair mechanism that responds to the micro-damage. Some self-healing materials are classed as smart structures, and can adapt to various environmental conditions according to their sensing and actuation properties. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to use lime mortars.
About 6,000 years ago, they used lime to plaster the pyramids at Giza. In addition, the Egyptians also incorporated various limes into their religious temples as well as their homes. Indian traditional structures built with lime mortar, which are more than 4,000 years old like Mohanjo-Daro is still a heritage monument of Indian civilization. Understanding the materials science involved, and intentionally designing such materials, however, has taken place mostly since the end of the 1990s. The inspiration for the development of self-healing materials comes from biological systems, which have the ability to heal after being wounded.
Healing mechanisms vary from an instrinsic repair of the material to the addition of a repair agent contained in a microscopic vessel. For a material to be strictly defined as autonomously self-healing, it is necessary that the healing process occurs without human intervention. Animations show the surface topography healing from a scratch made by a metallic tool. A material that can intrinsically correct damage caused by normal usage could prevent costs incurred by material failure and lower costs of a number of different industrial processes through longer part lifetime, and reduction of inefficiency caused by degradation over time.
Crystals of platey strätlingite grow in the cementitious matrix of the material including the interfacial zones where cracks would tend to develop. This ongoing crystal formation holds together the mortar and the coarse aggregate, countering crack formation and resulting in a material that has lasted for 1,900 years. Related processes in concrete have been studied microscopically since the 19th century. Self healing materials only emerged as a widely recognized field of study in the 21st century.