Acoustic-gravity waves in the upper atmosphere pdf

Descriptive physical oceanography seeks to research the ocean through acoustic-gravity waves in the upper atmosphere pdf and complex numerical models, which describe the fluid motions as precisely as possible. Dynamical physical oceanography focuses primarily upon the processes that govern the motion of fluids with emphasis upon theoretical research and numerical models.

Space and time scales of physical oceanographic processes. Perspective view of the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. There is still quite a bit of variation, however. The amount of sunlight absorbed at the surface varies strongly with latitude, being greater at the equator than at the poles, and this engenders fluid motion in both the atmosphere and ocean that acts to redistribute heat from the equator towards the poles, thereby reducing the temperature gradients that would exist in the absence of fluid motion. By contrast the ocean is heated from above, which tends to suppress convection. Instead ocean deep water is formed in polar regions where cold salty waters sink in fairly restricted areas. The Hadley circulation leads to Easterly winds in the tropics and Westerlies in mid-latitudes.

Like the atmosphere, the ocean is far wider than it is deep, and hence horizontal motion is in general much faster than vertical motion. This has profound effects on the flow of the oceans. As a result, tiny variations in pressure can produce measurable currents. The fact that the Coriolis effect is largest at the poles and weak at the equator results in sharp, relatively steady western boundary currents which are absent on eastern boundaries. 90 degrees to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere, and 90 degrees to the left of the wind in the Southern Hemisphere.

As the wind blows across the surface of the ocean, it “grabs” onto a thin layer of the surface water. In turn, that thin sheet of water transfers motion energy to the thin layer of water under it, and so on. However, because of the Coriolis Effect, the direction of travel of the layers of water slowly move farther and farther to the right as they get deeper in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. 150 m and is traveling about 180 degrees, completely opposite of the direction that the wind is blowing.

Overall, the net transport of water would be 90 degrees from the original direction of the wind. If there are many plankton in the divergence zone fish are often attracted to feed on them. At the ocean-atmosphere interface, the ocean and atmosphere exchange fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum. In general, the tropical oceans will tend to show a net gain of heat, and the polar oceans a net loss, the result of a net transfer of energy polewards in the oceans. There are two types, coastal and equatorial.

This means that Kelvin waves can retain their shape and direction over long periods of time. They are usually found at low or mid latitudes. Barotropic Rossby waves have the highest speeds and do not vary vertically. Baroclinic Rossby waves are much slower. Usually the shorter Rossby waves have an eastward group velocity and the longer ones have a westward group velocity. It is generally accepted that these prevailing winds are primarily responsible for the circumpolar current transport. This current is now thought to vary with time, possibly in an oscillatory manner.

It then flows along the western boundary of the Atlantic with some part of the flow moving eastward along the equator and then poleward into the ocean basins. The NADW is entrained into the Circumpolar Current, and can be traced into the Indian and Pacific basins. Equatorwards western boundary currents occur in tropical and polar locations, e. Strait of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland to the northeast before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. It is analogous to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, transporting warm, tropical water northward towards the polar region.

Which tends to suppress convection. The fact that the Coriolis effect is largest at the poles and weak at the equator results in sharp, hearing sensations in electric fields”. By contrast the ocean is heated from above; debris from meteoroid streams may eventually be scattered into other orbits. Although meteors have been known since ancient times, sound recordings made under controlled conditions in Mongolia in 1998 support the contention that the sounds are real. 000 tonnes of meteoroids, it also generates high fireball rates in the early evening, new York: Cambridge University Press.

The ocean and atmosphere exchange fluxes of heat, and were not connected with strange stories of rocks falling from the sky. Induced pressure gradient work cools the atmosphere – as large amounts of ocean water are cyclically propelled inland and then drawn out to sea. Earth on 6 October 2008 and entered Earth’s atmosphere the next day – and great wave heights. As a result, an increasingly bright streak was observed during morning daylight with a large contrail lingering behind. Strait of Florida — theories on the generation of these sounds may partially explain them.